A DIVISION OF " FRISKIES FOUNDATION (PVT) LTD"
   
  Naturopathy Research Foundation
  Massage therapy - Abstracts
 
1: Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2009 Jan 20. [Epub ahead of print]
 
[Massage of the lateral pterygoid muscle in acute TMJ dysfunction syndrome.]
 
[Article in French]
 
Barriere P, Zink S, Riehm S, Kahn JL, Veillon F, Wilk A.
 
Service de stomatologie, chirurgie maxillofaciale, plastique et reconstructrice, 
CHU de Strasbourg, 1, place de l'Hôpital, BP 426, 67091 Strasbourg cedex, France.
 
INTRODUCTION: Massage of the lateral pterygoid muscle according to Cyriax's
principles is an unrecognized procedure. This procedure was tried on patients
presenting with temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome. MATERIAL AND
METHODS: Fifteen patients were treated. Pain, joint clicking, measurement of
mouth opening, lateral excursion and propulsion were recorded. Assessment was
made before and after the massage in the same consultation. RESULTS: Joint
clicking was solved in 80% and pain in 50% of the cases. Mouth opening increased 
by 12.8%, propulsion by 11.6% and lateral excursion by 41.3%. DISCUSSION: Massage
of the lateral pterygoid muscle according to Cyriax's principles is a simple and 
efficient method that can be recommended for patients presenting with
temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome. We performed a brief anatomical and
radiological MRI study supporting the feasibility of lateral pterygoid muscle
palpation.
 
PMID: 19162287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
 
2: Support Care Cancer. 2009 Jan 13. [Epub ahead of print]
 
Massage therapy for cancer palliation and supportive care: a systematic review of
randomised clinical trials.
 
Ernst E.
 
Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and
Plymouth, 25 Victoria Park Road, Exeter, EX2 4NT, UK, Edzard.Ernst@pms.ac.uk.
 
INTRODUCTION: Massage is a popular adjunct to cancer palliation. This systematic 
review is aimed at critically evaluating all available randomised clinical trials
of massage in cancer palliation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six databases were
searched to identify all trials of classical massage for cancer patients. Studies
of other types of massage, e.g. reflexology, aromatherapy, were excluded.
Fourteen trials met all inclusion criteria. DISCUSSION: Collectively, they
suggest that massage can alleviate a wide range of symptoms: pain, nausea,
anxiety, depression, anger, stress and fatigue. However, the methodological
quality of the included studies was poor, a fact that prevents definitive
conclusions. CONCLUSION: The evidence is, therefore, encouraging but not
compelling. The subject seems to warrant further investigations which avoid the
limitations of previous studies.
 
PMID: 19148685 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
 
3: J Perinatol. 2009 Jan 15. [Epub ahead of print]
 
Massage with kinesthetic stimulation improves weight gain in preterm infants.
 
Massaro AN, Hammad TA, Jazzo B, Aly H.
 
[1] 1Department of Neonatology, Children's National Medical Center, Washington
DC, USA [2] 2Newborn Services, The George Washington University Medical Center,
Washington DC, USA.
 
Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of massage with or
without kinesthetic stimulation on weight gain and length of hospital stay in the
preterm infant.Study Design:A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted
evaluating the effects of massage with or without kinesthetic stimulation (KS) on
weight gain and length of stay (LOS) in medically stable premature (<1500 g
and/or </=32 weeks gestational age) neonates. Infants were randomized either to
receive no intervention (control), massage therapy alone (massage), or massage
therapy with KS (M/KS). Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate
differences in the primary outcomes between the groups after controlling for
covariates. Post hoc analysis with stratification by birthweight (BW> and <1000
g) was also performed.Result:A total of 60 premature infants were recruited for
this study; 20 infants in each group. Average daily weight gain and LOS were
similar between the groups after controlling for covariates. For infants with
BW>1000 g, average daily weight gain was increased in the intervention groups
compared to control. This effect was mainly attributable to the M/KS
group.Conclusion:Massage with KS is a relatively simple and inexpensive
intervention that can improve weight gain in selected preterm infants. Length of 
hospital stay is not impacted by massage with or without KS. Further studies are 
needed to evaluate the effect of massage in the extremely low BW(<1000 g)
infant.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 15 January 2009;
doi:10.1038/jp.2008.230.
 
PMID: 19148112 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
 
4: Biomed Res. 2008 Dec;29(6):317-20.
 
The facial massage reduced anxiety and negative mood status, and increased
sympathetic nervous activity.
 
Hatayama T, Kitamura S, Tamura C, Nagano M, Ohnuki K.
 
User Science Institute, Kyushu University, Minami-ku, Fukuoka, Japan.
hata@usi.kyushu -u.ac.jp
 
The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of 45 min of facial massage on
the activity of autonomic nervous system, anxiety and mood in 32 healthy women.
Autonomic nervous activity was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) with
spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, we evaluated the
high-frequency components (HF) and the low- to high-frequency ratio (LF/HF
ratio), reflecting parasympathetic nervous activity and sympathetic nervous
activity, respectively. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Profile 
of Mood Status (POMS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. The
score of STAI and negative scale of POMS were significantly reduced following the
massage, and only the LF/HF ratio was significantly enhanced after the massage.
It was concluded that the facial massage might refresh the subjects by reducing
their psychological distress and activating the sympathetic nervous system.
 
Publication Types: 
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 19129675 [PubMed - in process]
 
5: J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Dec;14(10):1223-9.
 
Psychophysiological effects of massage-myofascial release after exercise: a
randomized sham-control study.
 
Arroyo-Morales M, Olea N, Martínez MM, Hidalgo-Lozano A, Ruiz-Rodríguez C,
Díaz-Rodríguez L.
 
Department of Physical Therapy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
marroyo@ugr.es
 
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of massage on
neuromuscular recruitment, mood state, and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT)
after high-intensity exercise. DESIGN: This was a prospective randomized clinical
trial using between-groups design. SETTING: The study was conducted at a
university-based sports medicine clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-two (62) healthy
active students age 18-26 participated. INTERVENTIONS: Participants, randomized
into two groups, performed three 30-second Wingate tests and immediately received
whole-body massage-myofascial induction or placebo (sham
ultrasound/magnetotherapy) treatment. The duration (40 minutes), position, and
therapist were the same for both treatments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dependent
variables were surface electromyography (sEMG) of quadriceps, profile of mood
states (POMS) and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) of trapezius and
masseter muscles. These data were assessed at baseline and after exercise and
recovery periods. RESULTS: Generalized estimating equations models were performed
on dependent variables to assess differences between groups. Significant
differences were found in effects of treatment on sEMG of Vastus Medialis (VM) (p
= 0.02) and vigor subscale (p = 0.04). After the recovery period, there was a
significant decrease in electromyographic (EMG) activity of VM (p = 0.02) in the 
myofascial-release group versus a nonsignificant increase in the placebo group (p
= 0.32), and a decrease in vigor (p < 0.01) in the massage group versus no change
in the placebo group (p = 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Massage reduces EMG amplitude and
vigor when applied as a passive recovery technique after a high-intensity
exercise protocol. Massage may induce a transient loss of muscle strength or a
change in the muscle fiber tension-length relationship, influenced by alterations
of muscle function and a psychological state of relaxation.
 
Publication Types: 
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 19123877 [PubMed - in process]
 
6: J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2009 Jan-Feb;26(1):16-28. Epub 2008 Dec 11.
 
Massage therapy for children with cancer.
 
Post-White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF.
 
University of Minnesota School of Nursing, 707 Kenwood Parkway, Minneapolis, MN
55403, USA. postw001@umn.edu
 
This pilot study aimed to determine the feasibility of providing massage to
children with cancer to reduce symptoms in children and anxiety in parents.
Twenty-three children/parent dyads were enrolled; 17 completed all data points.
Children with cancer, ages 1 to 18 years, received at least 2 identical cycles of
chemotherapy, and one parent, participated in the 2-period crossover design in
which 4 weekly massage sessions alternated with 4 weekly quiet-time control
sessions. Changes in relaxation (heart and respiratory rates, blood pressure, and
salivary cortisol level) and symptoms (pain, nausea, anxiety, and fatigue) were
assessed in children; anxiety and fatigue were measured in parents. Massage was
more effective than quiet time at reducing heart rate in children, anxiety in
children less than age 14 years, and parent anxiety. There were no significant
changes in blood pressure, cortisol, pain, nausea, or fatigue. Children reported 
that massage helped them feel better, lessened their anxiety and worries, and had
longer lasting effects than quiet time. Massage in children with cancer is
feasible and appears to decrease anxiety in parents and younger children.
 
Publication Types: 
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 19074355 [PubMed - in process]
 
7: J Pain Symptom Manage. 2008 Dec 11. [Epub ahead of print]
 
Effects of a Full-Body Massage on Pain Intensity, Anxiety, and Physiological
Relaxation in Taiwanese Patients withMetastatic Bone Pain: A Pilot Study.
 
Jane SW, Wilkie DJ, Gallucci BB, Beaton RD, Huang HY.
 
Department of Nursing (S.-W.J.), Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Tao-Yuan,
Taiwan; College of Nursing (D.J.W.), University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois;
Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems (B.B.G.) and Psychosocial and Community 
Health Systems (R.D.B.), University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; and
Statistical Center for HIV/AIDS Research and Prevention (SCHARP) (H.-Y.H.), Fred 
Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.
 
Bone involvement, a hallmark of advanced cancer, results in intolerable pain,
substantial morbidity, and impaired quality of life in 34%-45% of cancer
patients. Despite the publication of 15 studies on massage therapy (MT) in cancer
patients, little is known about the longitudinal effects of MT and safety in
cancer patients with bone metastasis. The purpose of this study was to describe
the feasibility of MT and to examine the effects of MT on present pain intensity 
(PPI), anxiety, and physiological relaxation over a 16- to 18-hour period in 30
Taiwanese cancer patients with bone metastases. A quasi-experimental, one-group, 
pretest-posttest design with repeated measures was used to examine the time
effects of MT using single-item scales for pain (PPI-visual analog scale [VAS])
and anxiety (anxiety-VAS), the modified Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire
(MSF-MPQ), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). MT was shown to
have effective immediate [t(29)=16.5, P=0.000; t(29)=8.9, P=0.000], short-term
(20-30 minutes) [t(29)=9.3, P=0.000; t(29)=10.1, P=0.000], intermediate (1-2.5
hours) [t(29)=7.9, P=0.000; t(29)=8.9, P=0.000], and long-term benefits (16-18
hours) [t(29)=4.0, P=0.000; t(29)=5.7, P=0.000] on PPI and anxiety. The most
significant impact occurred 15 [F=11.5(1,29), P<0.002] or 20 [F=20.4(1,29),
P<0.000] minutes after the intervention. There were no significant time effects
in decreasing or increasing HR and MAP. No patient reported any adverse effects
as a result of MT. Clinically, the time effects of MT can assist health care
providers in implementing MT along with pharmacological treatment, thereby
enhancing cancer pain management. Randomized clinical trials are needed to
validate the effectiveness of MT in this cancer population.
 
PMID: 19070458 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

1: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007 Jul 4. [Epub ahead of print]
 
Anxiolytic Effect of Aromatherapy Massage in Patients with Breast Cancer.
 
Imanishi J, Kuriyama H, Shigemori I, Watanabe S, Aihara Y, Kita M, Sawai K,
Nakajima H, Yoshida N, Kunisawa M, Kawase M, Fukui K.
 
Department of Microbiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine,
Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan.
imanishi-micro@nifty.com.
 
We examined how aromatherapy massage influenced psychologic and immunologic
parameters in 12 breast cancer patients in an open semi-comparative trial. We
compared the results 1 month before aromatherapy massage as a waiting control
period with those during aromatherapy massage treatment and 1 month after the
completion of aromatherapy sessions. The patients received a 30 min aromatherapy 
massage twice a week for 4 weeks (eight times in total). The results showed that 
anxiety was reduced in one 30 min aromatherapy massage in State-Trait Anxiety
Inventory (STAI) test and also reduced in eight sequential aromatherapy massage
sessions in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) test. Our results
further suggested that aromatherapy massage ameliorated the immunologic state.
Further investigations are required to confirm the anxiolytic effect of
aromatherapy in breast cancer patients.
 
PMID: 18955225 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
 
2: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008 Sep;5(3):325-8.
 
Aromatherapy massage affects menopausal symptoms in korean climacteric women: a
pilot-controlled clinical trial.
 
Hur MH, Yang YS, Lee MS.
 
Department of Nursing, Eulji University, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology,
School of Medicine, Eulji University and Department of Medical Research, Korea
Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon,South Korea.
 
This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal
symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to
compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control 
group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in 
the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using
lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week
for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a
significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). 
There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as
vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings
suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal
symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, 
it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy,
the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective 
measures.
 
PMID: 18830459 [PubMed - in process]
 
3: Isr Med Assoc J. 2008 Jul;10(7):499-502.
 
Comment in:
    Isr Med Assoc J. 2008 Jul;10(7):531-3.
 
Perineal massage during pregnancy: a prospective controlled trial.
 
Mei-dan E, Walfisch A, Raz I, Levy A, Hallak M.
 
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera,
Israel. eladmei@yahoo.com
 
BACKGROUND: Women frequently suffer perineal trauma while giving birth.
Interventions to increase the possibility for an intact perineum are needed.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal perineal massage in
increasing the likelihood of delivering with an intact perineum. METHODS: This
single blinded prospective controlled trial included 234 nulliparous women with a
singleton fetus. Women allocated to the study group were instructed to practice a
10 minute perineal massage daily from the 34th week of gestation until delivery. 
Primary outcome measures included the episiotomy rate; first, second, third and
fourth-degree perineal tear rates; and intact perineum. Secondary outcomes were
related to specific tear locations and the amount of suture material required for
repair. RESULTS: Episiotomy rates, overall spontaneous tears and intact perineum 
rates were similar in the study and control groups. Women in the massage group
had slightly lower rates of first-degree tears (73.3% vs. 78.9%, P = 0.39) and
slightly higher rates of second-degree tears (26.7% vs. 19.3%, P= 0.39), although
both of these outcomes did not reach statistical significance. The rates of
anterior perineal tears were significantly higher in the massage group (9.5% vs. 
3%, P = 0.05), whereas internal lateral tears rates were slightly lower but
without statistical significance (11.5% vs.13.1%, P=0.44). CONCLUSIONS: The
practice of antenatal perineal massage showed neither a protective nor a
detrimental significant effect on the occurrence of perineal trauma.
 
Publication Types: 
    Controlled Clinical Trial
 
PMID: 18751626 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
4: J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2008 Dec;29(6):463-6.
 
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 increased in preterm neonates following 
massage therapy.
 
Field T, Diego M, Hernandez-Reif M, Dieter JN, Kumar AM, Schanberg S, Kuhn C.
 
Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL
33101, USA. tfield@med.miami.edu
 
OBJECTIVE: To determine if massage therapy increased serum insulin and
insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-two
preterm neonates who averaged 34.6 weeks (M = 29.5 wk gestational age; M birth
weight = 1237 g) and were in the "grower" (step-down) nursery were randomly
assigned to a massage therapy group (body stroking and passive limb movements for
three, 15-minute periods per day for 5 days) or a control group that received the
standard nursery care without massage therapy. On Days 1 and 5, the serum
collected by clinical heelsticks was also assayed for insulin and IGF-1, and
weight gain and kilocalories consumed were recorded daily. RESULTS: Despite
similar formula intake, the massaged preterm neonates showed greater increases
during the 5-day period in (1) weight gain; (2) serum levels of insulin; and (3) 
IGF-1. Increased weight gain was significantly correlated with insulin and IGF-1.
DISCUSSION: Previous data suggested that preterm infant weight gain following
massage therapy related to increased vagal activity, which suggests decreased
stress and gastric motility, which may contribute to more efficient food
absorption. The data from this study suggest for the first time that weight gain 
was also related to increased serum insulin and IGF-1 levels following massage
therapy. CONCLUSION: Preterm infants who received massage therapy not only showed
greater weight gain but also a greater increase in serum insulin and IGF-1
levels, suggesting that massage therapy might be prescribed for all growing
neonates.
 
Publication Types: 
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 18714203 [PubMed - in process]
1: Auton Neurosci. 2008 Jun;140(1-2):88-95. Epub 2008 May 12.
 
The effect of massage on cellular immunity, endocrine and psychological factors
in women with breast cancer -- a randomized controlled clinical trial.
 
Billhult A, Lindholm C, Gunnarsson R, Stener-Victorin E.
 
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology/Physiotherapy, The Sahlgrenska Academy
at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden. annika.billhult@vgregion.se
 
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of repeated
effleurage massage treatments compared with a visit control group on circulating 
lymphocytes by studying the number and activity of peripheral blood NK cells,
CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in women with breast cancer. Furthermore, the effect of
repeated effleurage massage treatments on the levels of cortisol in saliva and
oxytocin in plasma as well as degree anxiety, depression and quality of life was 
studied. DESIGN: A single centre, prospective, randomized, controlled trial.
SETTINGS/LOCATION: The study was conducted in a radiation department, in a
hospital in south-western Sweden. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two women (mean age=62) with
breast cancer undergoing radiation were included in this study. INTERVENTIONS:
The patients were randomly assigned to effleurage massage therapy (20 min of
effleurage on ten occasions) or to control visits (ten 20-minute visits). OUTCOME
MEASURES: Blood samples were collected before the first and last massage/control 
visit for analysis of peripheral blood NK, T cells and oxytocin. Saliva was
analysed for cortisol. In addition, the patients completed the Hospital Anxiety
and Depression Scale, Life Satisfaction Questionnaire and Spielbergers State
Trait Anxiety Inventory prior to the first and last massage/control visit.
RESULTS: Effleurage massage treatment had no significant effect on the number,
frequencies or activation state of NK cells or CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Furthermore,
no significant changes between groups were detected on cortisol and oxytocin
concentrations, anxiety, depression or quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Significant 
effect of effleurage massage on cellular immunity, cortisol, oxytocin, anxiety,
depression or quality of life could not be demonstrated in this study. Several
possible explanations to the results of this study are discussed.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 18474451 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
2: Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008 May;42(5):414-22.
 
Comment in:
    Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008 Nov;42(11):993.
 
Pilot study evaluating the effect of massage therapy on stress, anxiety and
aggression in a young adult psychiatric inpatient unit.
 
Garner B, Phillips LJ, Schmidt HM, Markulev C, O'Connor J, Wood SJ, Berger GE,
Burnett P, McGorry PD.
 
ORYGEN Research Centre, Parkville, Vic., Australia. belinda.garner@mh.org.au
 
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of
a relaxation massage therapy programme in reducing stress, anxiety and aggression
on a young adult psychiatric inpatient unit. METHOD: This was a prospective,
non-randomized intervention study comparing treatment as usual (TAU) with TAU
plus massage therapy intervention (MT) over consecutive 7 week blocks (May-August
2006). MT consisted of a 20 min massage therapy session offered daily to patients
during their period of hospitalization. The Kennedy Nurses' Observational Scale
for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R),
the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and stress hormone (saliva cortisol)
levels were used to measure patient outcomes at admission and discharge from the 
unit. The Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) was used to monitor
the frequency and severity of aggressive incidents on the unit. RESULTS: There
was a significant reduction in self-reported anxiety (p < 0.001), resting heart
rate (p < 0.05) and cortisol levels (p < 0.05) immediately following the initial 
and final massage therapy sessions. Significant improvements in hostility (p =
0.007) and depression scores (p < 0.001) on the SCL-90-R were observed in both
treatment groups. There was no group x time interaction on any of the measures.
Poor reliability of staff-reported incidents on the SOAS-R limited the validity
of results in this domain. CONCLUSIONS: Massage therapy had immediate beneficial 
effects on anxiety-related measures and may be a useful de-escalating tool for
reducing stress and anxiety in acutely hospitalized psychiatric patients. Study
limitations preclude any definite conclusions on the effect of massage therapy on
aggressive incidents in an acute psychiatric setting. Randomized controlled
trials are warranted.
 
Publication Types: 
    Clinical Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 18478478 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
3: J Pain. 2008 Aug;9(8):714-21. Epub 2008 May 2.
 
Massage reduces pain perception and hyperalgesia in experimental muscle pain: a
randomized, controlled trial.
 
Frey Law LA, Evans S, Knudtson J, Nus S, Scholl K, Sluka KA.
 
Program in Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, The University of Iowa,
Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. USA. laura-freylaw@uiowa.edu
 
Massage is a common conservative intervention used to treat myalgia. Although
subjective reports have supported the premise that massage decreases pain, few
studies have systematically investigated the dose response characteristics of
massage relative to a control group. The purpose of this study was to perform a
double-blinded, randomized controlled trial of the effects of massage on
mechanical hyperalgesia (pressure pain thresholds, PPT) and perceived pain using 
delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) as an endogenous model of myalgia.
Participants were randomly assigned to a no-treatment control, superficial touch,
or deep-tissue massage group. Eccentric wrist extension exercises were performed 
at visit 1 to induce DOMS 48 hours later at visit 2. Pain, assessed using visual 
analog scales (VAS), and PPTs were measured at baseline, after exercise, before
treatment, and after treatment. Deep massage decreased pain (48.4% DOMS reversal)
during muscle stretch. Mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced (27.5% reversal) after
both the deep massage and superficial touch groups relative to control (increased
hyperalgesia by 38.4%). Resting pain did not vary between treatment groups.
PERSPECTIVE: This randomized, controlled trial suggests that massage is capable
of reducing myalgia symptoms by approximately 25% to 50%, varying with assessment
technique. Thus, potential analgesia may depend on the pain assessment used. This
information may assist clinicians in determining conservative treatment options
for patients with myalgia.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 18455480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
4: Complement Ther Med. 2008 Feb;16(1):3-8. Epub 2007 Jun 27.
 
Reflexology in the management of low back pain: a pilot randomised controlled
trial.
 
Quinn F, Hughes CM, Baxter GD.
 
Health and Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, University of Ulster, Shore Road,
Newtownabbey, Co. Antrim BT37 OQB, United Kingdom.
 
OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed as a pilot study for a randomised
controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of reflexology in the
management of low back pain (LBP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants suffering 
non-specific LBP were recruited and randomised into either a reflexology or a
sham group. Patients and outcome assessor were blinded to group allocation. Each 
patient received either a 40 min reflexology treatment or sham treatment
(according to group allocation) once per week for six consecutive weeks. The
primary outcome measure was pain (visual analogue scale), secondary outcome
measures were the McGill pain questionnaire, Roland-Morris disability
questionnaire, and SF-36 health survey. Outcome measures were performed at
baseline, week 6, week 12 and week 18. RESULTS: VAS scores for pain reduced in
the treatment group by a median value of 2.5 cm, with minimal change in the sham 
group (0.2 cm). Secondary outcome measures produced an improvement in both groups
(McGill pain questionnaire: 18 points in the reflexology group and 11.5 points in
the sham group). Results indicate that reflexology may have a positive effect on 
LBP. CONCLUSION: Reflexology appears to offer promise as a treatment in the
management of LBP; however, an adequately powered trial is required before any
more definitive pronouncements are possible.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
 
PMID: 18346622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
5: Psychooncology. 2008 Oct;17(10):1024-31.
 
Massage in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy reduces serum cortisol and 
prolactin.
 
Stringer J, Swindell R, Dennis M.
 
Haematology and Transplant Unit, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust,
Manchester, UK. jacqui.stringer@christie.nhs.uk
 
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to identify whether single 20 min massage sessions
were safe and effective in reducing stress levels of isolated haematological
oncology patients. DESIGN: Based on a randomised controlled trial, 39 patients
were randomised to aromatherapy, massage or rest (control) arm. MEASURES: The
measures were serum cortisol and prolactin levels, quality of life (EORTC
QLQ-C30) and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcome measure was the fall in 
serum cortisol levels. RESULTS: A significant difference was seen between arms in
cortisol (P=0.002) and prolactin (p=0.031) levels from baseline to 30 min
post-session. Aromatherapy and massage arms showed a significantly greater drop
in cortisol than the rest arm. Only the massage arm had a significantly greater
reduction in prolactin then the rest arm. The EORTC QLQ-C30 showed a significant 
reduction in 'need for rest' for patients in both experimental arms compared with
the control arm, whereas the semi-structured interviews identified a universal
feeling of relaxation in patients in the experimental arms. CONCLUSION: This
pilot study demonstrated that in isolated haematological oncology patients, a
significant reduction in cortisol could be safely achieved through massage, with 
associated improvement in psychological well-being. The implications are
discussed. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Publication Types: 
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 18300336 [PubMed - in process]

 

1: Auton Neurosci. 2008 Jun;140(1-2):88-95. Epub 2008 May 12.
 
The effect of massage on cellular immunity, endocrine and psychological factors
in women with breast cancer -- a randomized controlled clinical trial.
 
Billhult A, Lindholm C, Gunnarsson R, Stener-Victorin E.
 
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology/Physiotherapy, The Sahlgrenska Academy
at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden. annika.billhult@vgregion.se
 
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of repeated
effleurage massage treatments compared with a visit control group on circulating 
lymphocytes by studying the number and activity of peripheral blood NK cells,
CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in women with breast cancer. Furthermore, the effect of
repeated effleurage massage treatments on the levels of cortisol in saliva and
oxytocin in plasma as well as degree anxiety, depression and quality of life was 
studied. DESIGN: A single centre, prospective, randomized, controlled trial.
SETTINGS/LOCATION: The study was conducted in a radiation department, in a
hospital in south-western Sweden. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two women (mean age=62) with
breast cancer undergoing radiation were included in this study. INTERVENTIONS:
The patients were randomly assigned to effleurage massage therapy (20 min of
effleurage on ten occasions) or to control visits (ten 20-minute visits). OUTCOME
MEASURES: Blood samples were collected before the first and last massage/control 
visit for analysis of peripheral blood NK, T cells and oxytocin. Saliva was
analysed for cortisol. In addition, the patients completed the Hospital Anxiety
and Depression Scale, Life Satisfaction Questionnaire and Spielbergers State
Trait Anxiety Inventory prior to the first and last massage/control visit.
RESULTS: Effleurage massage treatment had no significant effect on the number,
frequencies or activation state of NK cells or CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Furthermore,
no significant changes between groups were detected on cortisol and oxytocin
concentrations, anxiety, depression or quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Significant 
effect of effleurage massage on cellular immunity, cortisol, oxytocin, anxiety,
depression or quality of life could not be demonstrated in this study. Several
possible explanations to the results of this study are discussed.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 18474451 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
2: Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008 May;42(5):414-22.
 
Comment in:
    Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008 Nov;42(11):993.
 
Pilot study evaluating the effect of massage therapy on stress, anxiety and
aggression in a young adult psychiatric inpatient unit.
 
Garner B, Phillips LJ, Schmidt HM, Markulev C, O'Connor J, Wood SJ, Berger GE,
Burnett P, McGorry PD.
 
ORYGEN Research Centre, Parkville, Vic., Australia. belinda.garner@mh.org.au
 
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of
a relaxation massage therapy programme in reducing stress, anxiety and aggression
on a young adult psychiatric inpatient unit. METHOD: This was a prospective,
non-randomized intervention study comparing treatment as usual (TAU) with TAU
plus massage therapy intervention (MT) over consecutive 7 week blocks (May-August
2006). MT consisted of a 20 min massage therapy session offered daily to patients
during their period of hospitalization. The Kennedy Nurses' Observational Scale
for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R),
the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and stress hormone (saliva cortisol)
levels were used to measure patient outcomes at admission and discharge from the 
unit. The Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) was used to monitor
the frequency and severity of aggressive incidents on the unit. RESULTS: There
was a significant reduction in self-reported anxiety (p < 0.001), resting heart
rate (p < 0.05) and cortisol levels (p < 0.05) immediately following the initial 
and final massage therapy sessions. Significant improvements in hostility (p =
0.007) and depression scores (p < 0.001) on the SCL-90-R were observed in both
treatment groups. There was no group x time interaction on any of the measures.
Poor reliability of staff-reported incidents on the SOAS-R limited the validity
of results in this domain. CONCLUSIONS: Massage therapy had immediate beneficial 
effects on anxiety-related measures and may be a useful de-escalating tool for
reducing stress and anxiety in acutely hospitalized psychiatric patients. Study
limitations preclude any definite conclusions on the effect of massage therapy on
aggressive incidents in an acute psychiatric setting. Randomized controlled
trials are warranted.
 
Publication Types: 
    Clinical Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 18478478 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
3: J Pain. 2008 Aug;9(8):714-21. Epub 2008 May 2.
 
Massage reduces pain perception and hyperalgesia in experimental muscle pain: a
randomized, controlled trial.
 
Frey Law LA, Evans S, Knudtson J, Nus S, Scholl K, Sluka KA.
 
Program in Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, The University of Iowa,
Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. USA. laura-freylaw@uiowa.edu
 
Massage is a common conservative intervention used to treat myalgia. Although
subjective reports have supported the premise that massage decreases pain, few
studies have systematically investigated the dose response characteristics of
massage relative to a control group. The purpose of this study was to perform a
double-blinded, randomized controlled trial of the effects of massage on
mechanical hyperalgesia (pressure pain thresholds, PPT) and perceived pain using 
delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) as an endogenous model of myalgia.
Participants were randomly assigned to a no-treatment control, superficial touch,
or deep-tissue massage group. Eccentric wrist extension exercises were performed 
at visit 1 to induce DOMS 48 hours later at visit 2. Pain, assessed using visual 
analog scales (VAS), and PPTs were measured at baseline, after exercise, before
treatment, and after treatment. Deep massage decreased pain (48.4% DOMS reversal)
during muscle stretch. Mechanical hyperalgesia was reduced (27.5% reversal) after
both the deep massage and superficial touch groups relative to control (increased
hyperalgesia by 38.4%). Resting pain did not vary between treatment groups.
PERSPECTIVE: This randomized, controlled trial suggests that massage is capable
of reducing myalgia symptoms by approximately 25% to 50%, varying with assessment
technique. Thus, potential analgesia may depend on the pain assessment used. This
information may assist clinicians in determining conservative treatment options
for patients with myalgia.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 18455480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
4: Complement Ther Med. 2008 Feb;16(1):3-8. Epub 2007 Jun 27.
 
Reflexology in the management of low back pain: a pilot randomised controlled
trial.
 
Quinn F, Hughes CM, Baxter GD.
 
Health and Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, University of Ulster, Shore Road,
Newtownabbey, Co. Antrim BT37 OQB, United Kingdom.
 
OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed as a pilot study for a randomised
controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of reflexology in the
management of low back pain (LBP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants suffering 
non-specific LBP were recruited and randomised into either a reflexology or a
sham group. Patients and outcome assessor were blinded to group allocation. Each 
patient received either a 40 min reflexology treatment or sham treatment
(according to group allocation) once per week for six consecutive weeks. The
primary outcome measure was pain (visual analogue scale), secondary outcome
measures were the McGill pain questionnaire, Roland-Morris disability
questionnaire, and SF-36 health survey. Outcome measures were performed at
baseline, week 6, week 12 and week 18. RESULTS: VAS scores for pain reduced in
the treatment group by a median value of 2.5 cm, with minimal change in the sham 
group (0.2 cm). Secondary outcome measures produced an improvement in both groups
(McGill pain questionnaire: 18 points in the reflexology group and 11.5 points in
the sham group). Results indicate that reflexology may have a positive effect on 
LBP. CONCLUSION: Reflexology appears to offer promise as a treatment in the
management of LBP; however, an adequately powered trial is required before any
more definitive pronouncements are possible.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
 
PMID: 18346622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
5: Psychooncology. 2008 Oct;17(10):1024-31.
 
Massage in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy reduces serum cortisol and 
prolactin.
 
Stringer J, Swindell R, Dennis M.
 
Haematology and Transplant Unit, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust,
Manchester, UK. jacqui.stringer@christie.nhs.uk
 
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to identify whether single 20 min massage sessions
were safe and effective in reducing stress levels of isolated haematological
oncology patients. DESIGN: Based on a randomised controlled trial, 39 patients
were randomised to aromatherapy, massage or rest (control) arm. MEASURES: The
measures were serum cortisol and prolactin levels, quality of life (EORTC
QLQ-C30) and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcome measure was the fall in 
serum cortisol levels. RESULTS: A significant difference was seen between arms in
cortisol (P=0.002) and prolactin (p=0.031) levels from baseline to 30 min
post-session. Aromatherapy and massage arms showed a significantly greater drop
in cortisol than the rest arm. Only the massage arm had a significantly greater
reduction in prolactin then the rest arm. The EORTC QLQ-C30 showed a significant 
reduction in 'need for rest' for patients in both experimental arms compared with
the control arm, whereas the semi-structured interviews identified a universal
feeling of relaxation in patients in the experimental arms. CONCLUSION: This
pilot study demonstrated that in isolated haematological oncology patients, a
significant reduction in cortisol could be safely achieved through massage, with 
associated improvement in psychological well-being. The implications are
discussed. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Publication Types: 
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 18300336 [PubMed - in process]
 
6: Arch Surg. 2007 Dec;142(12):1158-67; discussion 1167.
 
Acute postoperative pain management using massage as an adjuvant therapy: a
randomized trial.
 
Mitchinson AR, Kim HM, Rosenberg JM, Geisser M, Kirsh M, Cikrit D, Hinshaw DB.
 
Section of General Surgery, Geriatrics and Palliative Care Program, VA Ann Arbor 
Healthcare System, 2215 Fuller Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA.
 
HYPOTHESIS: Adjuvant massage therapy improves pain management and postoperative
anxiety among many patients who experience unrelieved postoperative pain.
Pharmacologic interventions alone may not address all of the factors involved in 
the experience of pain. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department 
of Veterans Affairs hospitals in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and Indianapolis, Indiana. 
PATIENTS: Six hundred five veterans (mean age, 64 years) undergoing major surgery
from February 1, 2003, through January 31, 2005. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were
assigned to the following 3 groups: (1) control (routine care), (2)
individualized attention from a massage therapist (20 minutes), or (3) back
massage by a massage therapist each evening for up to 5 postoperative days. Main 
Outcome Measure Short- and long-term (> 4 days) pain intensity, pain
unpleasantness, and anxiety measured by visual analog scales. RESULTS: Compared
with the control group, patients in the massage group experienced short-term
(preintervention vs postintervention) decreases in pain intensity (P = .001),
pain unpleasantness (P < .001), and anxiety (P = .007). In addition, patients in 
the massage group experienced a faster rate of decrease in pain intensity (P =
.02) and unpleasantness (P = .01) during the first 4 postoperative days compared 
with the control group. There were no differences in the rates of decrease in
long-term anxiety, length of stay, opiate use, or complications across the 3
groups. CONCLUSION: Massage is an effective and safe adjuvant therapy for the
relief of acute postoperative pain in patients undergoing major operations.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
 
PMID: 18086982 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
7: Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2008 Feb;7(1):151-6. Epub 2007 Nov 13.
 
Comment in:
    Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2008 Feb;7(1):156-7.    Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2008 Feb;7(1):157.
 
Is internal massage superior to external massage for patients suffering a cardiac
arrest after cardiac surgery?
 
Twomey D, Das M, Subramanian H, Dunning J.
 
Department of Cardiology, James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, UK.
darraghtwomey@doctors.org.uk
 
A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured
protocol. The question addressed was whether open chest cardiac massage is
superior to closed chest compressions in patients suffering cardiac arrest
following cardiac surgery. Using the reported search, 527 papers were identified.
Fifteen papers represented the best evidence on the subject and the author,
journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type,
relevant outcomes, results and study comments and weaknesses were tabulated. The 
quality and level of evidence was assessed using the International Liaison
Committee on Resuscitation guideline recommendations. We conclude that over 18
good quality animal studies have consistently demonstrated the superiority of
open chest cardiac massage, with the cardiac index and coronary perfusion
pressures often more than doubling. There are fewer human studies but they have
shown that closed chest massage generates a cardiac index of around 0.6
l/min/m(2) which rises to 1.3 l/min/m(2) or more with open-chest-CPR, accompanied
by even bigger improvements in coronary perfusion pressure. ILCOR recommends
prompt conversion to open-chest-cardiac massage in patient's shortly post-cardiac
surgery, and we would support this intervention if simple resuscitative efforts
such as defibrillation, pacing or atropine fail, in order to significantly
improve the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
 
Publication Types: 
    Case Reports
 
PMID: 18000024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

1: J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Oct;13(8):793-6.
 
Side-effects of massage therapy: a cross-sectional study of 100 clients.
 
Cambron JA, Dexheimer J, Coe P, Swenson R.
 
Department of Research, National University of Health Sciences, Lombard, IL
60148, USA. jcambron@nuhs.edu
 
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the amount and type of
negative side-effects and positive (unexpected) effects experienced after a
massage session. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Massage clinic at a
health sciences university. SUBJECTS: Of the 100 new and returning massage
therapy clients who agreed to participate, 91 completed all survey questions.
Outcome measures: Telephone survey and medical chart review 2-7 days postmassage.
RESULTS: Overall, 10% of the massage clients experienced some minor discomfort
after the massage session; however, 23% experienced unexpected,
nonmusculoskeletal positive side-effects. The majority of negative symptoms
started less than 12 hours after the massage and lasted for 36 hours or less. The
majority of positive benefits began immediately after massage and lasted more
than 48 hours. No major side-effects occurred during this study. CONCLUSIONS:
This the first known study to define the rate of side-effects after massage
therapy treatment. These data are important for risk-benefit analyses of massage 
care. Larger studies are needed to verify these data and to assess effects of
different massage types and durations.
 
Publication Types: 
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 17983334 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
2: Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2007 Nov;13(4):266-75. Epub 2007 May 8.
 
The effects of foot and facial massage on sleep induction, blood pressure, pulse 
and respiratory rate: crossover pilot study.
 
Ejindu A.
 
London South Bank University, Faculty of Health and Social Care, LSBU at Havering
Campus, Gubbins Lane, Harold Wood, Romford, RM3 0BE, UK. ejinduam@lsbu.ac.uk
 
The study aimed to compare the effects of facial massage with that of foot
massage on sleep induction and vital signs of healthy adults and to test a
methodology that could be used by a lone researcher in such a study. A randomised
within-group crossover pilot study of six healthy female volunteers was
conducted. The interventions were a 20min foot and a 20min facial massage using
peach-kernel base oil Prunus persica. A drop in systolic blood pressure of
8.5mmHg was recorded immediately after facial massage compared to that of 1mmHg
recorded after foot massage. Both treatments were equally effective in reducing
subjective levels of alertness during the interventions, with face massage
marginally better at producing subjective sleepiness. A lone researcher using
these methods would be able objectively to measure vital signs before and after
interventions, but not during; and would be able subjectively to measure sleep
induction in non-sleep-laboratory contexts.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
 
PMID: 17950182 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
3: J Soc Integr Oncol. 2007 Fall;5(4):139-46.
 
Developing treatment and control conditions in a clinical trial of massage
therapy for advanced cancer.
 
Smith M, Kutner J, Hemphill L, Yamashita T, Felton S.
 
Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL
33431, USA.
 
The purpose of this article is to describe the challenges faced by a research
team in developing treatment and control conditions in a study of the efficacy of
massage therapy for advanced cancer. Five design considerations were addressed
related to developing a massage therapy protocol: (1) dosage, that is, the
number, spacing and length of treatments; (2) type of massage therapy; (3) degree
to which the protocol for the treatment is standardized; (4) qualifications of
the persons providing the treatment; and (5) conditions under which the treatment
is provided. Five criteria for structuring the control condition of the study are
elaborated: (1) equivalency of contact; (2) similarity of form; (3) minimum
adverse or negative effects; (4) expectancy of therapeutic benefit; and (5)
minimum therapeutic benefit.
 
PMID: 19087757 [PubMed - in process]
 
4: J Soc Integr Oncol. 2007 Fall;5(4):133-8.
 
Impact of massage therapy on anxiety levels in patients undergoing radiation
therapy: randomized controlled trial.
 
Campeau MP, Gaboriault R, Drapeau M, Van Nguyen T, Roy I, Fortin B, Marois M,
Nguyen-Tân PF.
 
Department of Radiation Oncology, CHUM Notre-Dame Hospital, Montreal, QC.
 
Anxiety is a major issue in the cancer patient population. This randomized phase 
III trial evaluated the effects of massage therapy on anxiety levels in patients 
undergoing radiation therapy. Patients undergoing radiation therapy were randomly
assigned to either 10 massage sessions or control sessions. Anxiety levels were
evaluated throughout the course of treatment using both the visual analogue scale
(VAS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The immediate effect of
massage therapy on anxiety scores was measured via pre- and postmassage VAS
scores. The intermediate-term effect of massage was assessed through the VAS
scores over the 10 sessions and STAI scores at the last session. The trial's
primary outcome was the difference in intermediate-term anxiety scores, whereas
the secondary outcome was the difference in immediate anxiety scores. Between
January 2006 and June 2006, 100 patients were randomized. After their massage,
the patients' immediate postmassage anxiety score according to the VAS was
reduced by an average of 45% compared with their premassage score (p < .001). No 
impact of massage therapy on intermediate-term anxiety scores was observed. Both 
groups showed a similar decline in VAS anxiety scores from the first to the last 
session, that is, 15% and 19% in the massage therapy and control groups,
respectively (p = .73). Furthermore, no difference was observed between the
groups' respective state-anxiety scores after the 10 sessions. Massage therapy is
associated with a significant, immediate decrease in anxiety scores. However,
massage therapy appears to have no major impact on intermediate-term anxiety in
patients undergoing radiation therapy.
 
PMID: 19087756 [PubMed - in process]
 
5: Spine. 2007 Sep 1;32(19):2041-9.
 
Physiotherapy-based rehabilitation following disc herniation operation: results
of a randomized clinical trial.
 
Erdogmus CB, Resch KL, Sabitzer R, Müller H, Nuhr M, Schöggl A, Posch M, Osterode
W, Ungersböck K, Ebenbichler GR.
 
Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Vienna Medical University,
Vienna, Austria.
 
STUDY DESIGN: Three-group, randomized, single blinded, controlled trial.
OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of physiotherapy-based rehabilitation
starting 1 week after lumbar disc surgery. In addition, we tried to estimate the 
contribution of specific effects to the observed outcome (efficacy). SUMMARY OF
BACKGROUND DATA: Physiotherapy-based rehabilitation is usually recommended for
patients following lumbar disc surgery. Few and conflicting data exist for the
relative effectiveness of this intervention. METHODS: A total of 120 patients
following first-time, uncomplicated lumbar disc surgery were randomly assigned to
"comprehensive" physiotherapy, "sham" neck massage, or no therapy. Before
enrollment, all subjects completed a minimal physiotherapeutic intervention.
Physiotherapy was administered by experienced physiotherapists and consisted of
20 sessions per patient over 12 weeks. Masseurs administered "sham massage" to
the neck. The amount of treatment time was equal to that of physiotherapy. The
main outcome measure was the Low Back Pain Rating Score (LBPRS) at 6 and 12
weeks, and 1.5 years after randomization. Secondary parameters were patients'
overall satisfaction with treatment outcome and socioeconomic and psychologic
measures. RESULTS: At the end of therapy (12 weeks), the LBPRS revealed a
significantly better improvement in the physiotherapy group than in the untreated
group. LBPRS outcome, however, did not significantly differ between physiotherapy
and "sham" therapy. There was a tendency toward significance between the sham
therapy and no therapy. Within the 1.5-year follow-up, LBP rating scales remained
significantly improved compared with baseline, but there were no significant
outcome differences. No statistically significant between-group differences were 
found for the secondary outcome parameters. CONCLUSION: As compared with no
therapy, physiotherapy following first-time disc herniation operation is
effective in the short-term. Because of the limited benefits of physiotherapy
relative to "sham" therapy, it is open to question whether this treatment acts
primarily physiologically in patients following first-time lumbar disc surgery,
but psychological factors may contribute substantially to the benefits observed.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 17762803 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
6: BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2007 Aug 31;8:86.
 
Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a physiotherapy program for chronic rotator
cuff pathology: a protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled
trial.
 
Bennell K, Coburn S, Wee E, Green S, Harris A, Forbes A, Buchbinder R.
 
Centre for Health, Exercise & Sports Medicine, School of Physiotherapy,
University of Melbourne, Australia. k.bennell@unimelb.edu.au
 
BACKGROUND: Chronic rotator cuff pathology (CRCP) is a common shoulder condition 
causing pain and disability. Physiotherapy is often the first line of management 
for CRCP yet there is little conclusive evidence to support or refute its
effectiveness and no formal evaluation of its cost-effectiveness. METHODS/DESIGN:
This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will involve 200
participants with CRCP recruited from medical practices, outpatient departments
and the community via print and radio media. Participants will be randomly
allocated to a physiotherapy or placebo group using concealed allocation
stratified by treating physiotherapist. Both groups will receive 10 sessions of
individual standardised treatment over 10 weeks from one of 10 project
physiotherapists. For the following 12 weeks, the physiotherapy group will
continue a home exercise program and the placebo group will receive no treatment.
The physiotherapy program will comprise shoulder joint and spinal mobilisation,
soft tissue massage, postural taping, and home exercises for scapular control,
posture and rotator cuff strengthening. The placebo group will receive inactive
ultrasound and gentle application of an inert gel over the shoulder region.
Blinded assessment will be conducted at baseline and at 10 weeks and 22 weeks
after randomisation. The primary outcome measures are self reported
questionnaires including the shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI), average 
pain on an 11-point numeric rating scale and participant perceived global rating 
of change. Secondary measures include Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form
(SF-36), Assessment of Quality of Life index, numeric rating scales for shoulder 
pain and stiffness, participant perceived rating of change for pain, strength and
stiffness, and manual muscle testing for shoulder strength using a handheld
dynamometer. To evaluate cost-effectiveness, participants will record the use of 
all health-related treatments in a log-book returned to the assessor monthly. To 
test the effect of the intervention using an intention-to-treat analysis, linear 
regression modelling will be applied adjusting for baseline outcome values and
other demographic characteristics. Participant measures of perceived change will 
be compared between groups by calculating the relative risks and their 95%
confidence intervals at each time point using log binomial regression.
DISCUSSION: Results from this trial will contribute to the evidence regarding the
effectiveness of a physiotherapy program for the management of CRCP.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 17761004 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
7: J Clin Nurs. 2007 Sep;16(9):1695-703.
 
The effect of aromatherapy massage with music on the stress and anxiety levels of
emergency nurses: comparison between summer and winter.
 
Cooke M, Holzhauser K, Jones M, Davis C, Finucane J.
 
School of Nursing & Midwifery, Research Centre for Clinical Practice Innovation, 
Griffith University, QLD, Australia. m.cooke@griffith.edu.au
 
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This research aimed to evaluate the use of aromatherapy
massage and music as an intervention to cope with the occupational stress and
anxiety that emergency department staff experience. The study also aimed to
compare any differences in results between a summer and winter 12-week massage
plan. BACKGROUND: Emergency nurses are subjected to significant stressors during 
their work and it is known that workloads and patient demands influence the role 
stress has on nurses. The perception that winter months are busier for emergency 
departments has long been held and there is some evidence that people with
cardiac and respiratory dysfunction do present more frequently in the winter
months. Massage has been found to decrease staff anxiety. DESIGN: The study used 
a one-group pre-test, post-test quasi-experimental design with random assignment.
METHOD: Staff occupational stress was assessed pre- and post- 12 weeks of
aromatherapy massage with music and anxiety was measured pre and post each
massage session. Sick leave was also measured. Comparisons of summer and winter
data were undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 365 massages were given over two
12-week periods, one during summer and the other during winter. Analysis
identified that aromatherapy massage with music significantly reduced anxiety for
both seasonal periods. Premassage anxiety was significantly higher in winter than
summer. No differences in sick leave and workload were found. There was no
difference in the occupational stress levels of nurses following the two 12-week 
periods of massage. CONCLUSION: Emergency nurses were significantly more anxious 
in winter than summer but this cannot be attributed to increased sick leave or
workloads. Aromatherapy massage with music significantly reduced emergency
nurses' anxiety. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: High levels of anxiety and
stress can be detrimental to the physical and emotional health of emergency
nurses and the provision of a support mechanism such as on-site massage as an
effective strategy should be considered.
 
Publication Types: 
    Comparative Study
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 17727588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
8: J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Jul-Aug;13(6):635-42.
 
Rhythmical massage therapy in chronic disease: a 4-year prospective cohort study.
 
Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, Ziegler R, Willich SN, Kiene H.
 
Institute for Applied Epistemology and Medical Methodology, Freiburg, Germany.
harald.hamre@ifaemm.de
 
OBJECTIVE: Rhythmical massage therapy is used in 24 countries but has not yet
been studied in outpatient settings. The objective was to study clinical outcomes
in patients receiving rhythmical massage therapy for chronic diseases. DESIGN:
Prospective 4-year cohort study. SETTING: Thirty-six (36) medical practices in
Germany. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-five (85) outpatients referred to rhythmical
massage therapy. OUTCOME MEASURES: Disease and Symptom Scores (physicians' and
patients' assessment, respectively, 0-10) and SF-36. Disease Score was measured
after 6 and 12 months, and other outcomes after 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 months. 
RESULTS: Most common indications were musculoskeletal diseases (45% of patients; 
primarily back and neck pain) and mental disorders (18%, primarily depression and
fatigue). Median disease duration at baseline was 2.0 years (interquartile range 
0.5-6.0). Median number of rhythmical massage therapy sessions was 12
(interquartile range 9-12), and median therapy duration was 84 (49-119) days. All
outcomes improved significantly between baseline and all subsequent follow-ups.
From baseline to 12 months, Disease Score improved from (mean +/- standard
deviation) 6.30 +/- 2.01 to 2.77 +/- 1.97 (p < 0.001), Symptom Score improved
from 5.76 +/- 1.81 to 3.13 +/- 2.20 (p < 0.001), SF-36 Physical Component score
improved from 39.55 +/- 9.91 to 45.17 +/- 9.88 (p < 0.001), and SF-36 Mental
Component score improved from 39.27 +/- 13.61 to 43.78 +/- 12.32 (p = 0.028). All
these improvements were maintained until the last follow-up. Adverse reactions to
rhythmical massage therapy occurred in 4 (5%) patients; 2 patients stopped
therapy because of adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving rhythmical 
massage therapy had long-term reduction of chronic disease symptoms and
improvement of quality of life.
 
Publication Types: 
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 17718646 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
9: Complement Ther Med. 2007 Sep;15(3):157-63. Epub 2007 Feb 20.
 
A randomised study of the effects of massage therapy compared to guided
relaxation on well-being and stress perception among older adults.
 
Sharpe PA, Williams HG, Granner ML, Hussey JR.
 
Prevention Research Center, Arnold School of Public Health, 921 Assembly Street, 
University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. pasharpe@sc.edu
 
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the effects of massage compared to guided 
relaxation on stress perception and well-being among older adults. DESIGN: A
randomised pilot study enrolled adults ages 60 and older to receive 50 min, twice
weekly massage therapy or guided relaxation sessions. Questionnaires were
administered at pre-test (1 week before the first session) and post-test (after
the last session). SETTING: Participants came to the University of South Carolina
campus for sessions. Adults aged 60 and older were recruited from community
venues and were briefly screened by telephone for contraindications.
INTERVENTION: Participants (n=54) received 50 min massage or guided relaxation
sessions twice weekly for 4 weeks. The massage included Swedish, neuromuscular,
and myofascial techniques. For the relaxation group, an appropriately trained
assistant read a script to guide the participant in using visualization and
muscle relaxation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The General Well-being Schedule is an
18-item scale with subscales measuring anxiety, depression, positive well-being, 
self-control, vitality, and general health. The Perceived Stress Scale is a
14-item scale assessing the degree to which situations in one's life are
appraised as stressful during the past month. RESULTS: Significant improvements
were found for the anxiety, depression, vitality, general health, and positive
well-being subscales of the General Well-being Schedule and for Perceived Stress 
among the massage participants compared to guided relaxation. CONCLUSIONS:
Findings indicate that massage therapy enhances positive well-being and reduces
stress perception among community-dwelling older adults.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 17709060 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

1: J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(6):432-7.
 
Effectiveness of traditional bone setting in chronic neck pain: randomized
clinical trial.
 
Zaproudina N, Hänninen OO, Airaksinen O.
 
Project researcher, Department of Biomedicine, Physiology, University of Kuopio, 
Kuopio, Finland. nina.zaproudina@uku.fi <nina.zaproudina@uku.fi>
 
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effectiveness of traditional bone setting
(TBS) in chronic neck pain (cNP) compared with conventional physiotherapy (PT)
and massage (M). METHODS: This was a randomized clinical trial. Working-aged
employed subjects with cNP (n = 105; 37 men and 68 women; mean age, 41.5 years)
were randomized into TBS, PT, and M groups. Follow-up times were 1, 6, and 12
months after the treatments. Neck pain intensity (visual analog scale), perceived
disability (Neck Disability Index [NDI]), and neck spine mobility measurements
were used as outcomes. Global assessment was evaluated by the subjects (scale
from -1 to +10). Data were analyzed using time (pre and post) by group (TBS, PT
and M), 2- way analysis of variance for repeated measures. RESULTS: Neck pain
decreased and NDI scores improved in all groups 1 month after the treatment (P < 
.001). The improvement of NDI and persons' satisfaction were significantly better
after TBS. Neck spine mobility in rotation movements tended to improve
significantly better and the frons-knee distance improved more after TBS. One
year later, both NDI and neck pain were significantly better after TBS than in
reference groups. A significant improvement was reported by 40% to 45.5% of
subjects in the PT and M groups and by 68.6% in the TBS group. Bone setters'
ability to communicate and to interact with patients was evaluated significantly 
higher. In the TBS group, the number of sick days was minimal as was the use of
painkillers during 1-year follow-up compared to that in the reference groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Traditional bone setting, which is a soft manual mobilization
technique focusing on the muscles, joints, and ligaments, appears to be effective
in cNP. Two thirds of subjects experienced it as beneficial, and it seems to be
able to improve disability and pain in patients with cNP. Subjective and
partially objective benefits of TBS were found in those patients more than after 
other interventions, and the effects lasted at least for 1 year.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
 
PMID: 17693333 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
2: Infant Behav Dev. 2008 Jan;31(1):149-52. Epub 2007 Aug 9.
 
Temperature increases in preterm infants during massage therapy.
 
Diego MA, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M.
 
Touch Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of
Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. mdiego@med.miami.edu
 
Temperature was assessed in 72 preterm infants randomly assigned to a control or 
a massage therapy group. A greater increase in temperature was noted for preterm 
infants receiving massage therapy versus a control group, even though the
incubator portholes remained open during the 15 min massage therapy session but
not for the control group over an equivalent time period.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 17692385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
3: J Adv Nurs. 2007 Sep;59(5):510-9. Epub 2007 Jul 20.
 
Effect of Nei-Guan point (P6) acupressure on ketonuria levels, nausea and
vomiting in women with hyperemesis gravidarum.
 
Shin HS, Song YA, Seo S.
 
College of Nursing Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea.
suksh@khu.ac.kr
 
AIM: This paper is a report of a study to examine the effect of Nei-Guan point
acupressure on nausea, vomiting and ketonuria levels in women diagnosed with
hyperemesis gravidarum. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that acupressure 
application on the Nei-Guan point is effective in relieving nausea and vomiting
associated with pregnancy and surgery. However, no findings have been supported
by physiological data. METHOD: A randomized control group pretest-post-test
design was implemented from 1 April 2003 to 30 April 2004 using three groups: a
Nei-Guan point acupressure group, a placebo group and a control group which
received only conventional intravenous treatment. The participants were 66 women 
admitted to two general hospitals in Korea with hyperemesis gravidarum. RESULTS: 
The degree of nausea and vomiting was statistically significantly lower in the
Nei-Guan point acupressure group in comparison with the placebo and control
groups. Ketonuria levels were reduced over time and, on days three and four of
hospitalization, levels in the treatment group were statistically significantly
lower than in the placebo or control groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Nei-Guan
point acupressure is a useful treatment for relieving symptoms experienced by
women with hyperemesis gravidarum.
 
Publication Types: 
    Multicenter Study
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 17645494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
4: Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2007 Jun;37(4):603-12.
 
[Effect of aromatherapy massage on abdominal fat and body image in
post-menopausal women]
 
[Article in Korean]
 
Kim HJ.
 
Department of Nursing, Wonkwang Health Science College, Korea. jm8711@naver.com
 
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of aromatherapy
massage on abdominal fat and body image in post-menopausal women. METHOD: A
Non-equivalent control group pre-post test Quasi-experimental design of random
assignment was applied. All subjects received one hour of whole body massage as
treatment by the same researcher every week for 6 weeks. Participants also
massaged their own abdomen two times everyday for 5 days each week for 6 weeks.
The two groups used different kinds of oil. The experimental group used 3%
grapefruit oil, cypress and three other kinds of oil. The control group used
grapeseed oil. Data was collected before and after the treatment using Siemens
Somatom Sensation 4, a tape measure and MBSRQ. Data was analyzed by ANCOVA using 
the SPSS/PC+Win 12 Version. RESULT: Abdominal subcutaneous fat and waist
circumference in the experimental group significantly decreased after
aromatherapy massage compared to the control group. Body image in the
experimental group was significantly better after aromatherapy massage than in
the control group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Aromatherapy massage
could be utilized as an effective intervention to reduce abdominal subcutaneous
fat, waist circumference, and to improve body image in post-menopausal women.
 
Publication Types: 
    English Abstract
    Randomized Controlled Trial
 
PMID: 17615482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
5: Clin Rehabil. 2007 Apr;21(4):338-43.
 
Effect of facial neuromuscular re-education on facial symmetry in patients with
Bell's palsy: a randomized controlled trial.
 
Manikandan N.
 
Department of Physiotherapy, Manipal College of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal, 
Karnataka, India. mani.kandan@manipal.edu
 
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of facial neuromuscular re-education over
conventional therapeutic measures in improving facial symmetry in patients with
Bell's palsy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Neurorehabilitation
unit. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine patients diagnosed with Bell's palsy were included in 
the study after they met the inclusion criteria. Patients were randomly divided
into two groups: control (n = 30) and experimental (n = 29). INTERVENTIONS:
Control group patients received conventional therapeutic measures while the
facial neuromuscular re-education group patients received techniques that were
tailored to each patient in three sessions per day for six days per week for a
period of two weeks. MAIN MEASURES: All the patients were evaluated using a
Facial Grading Scale before treatment and after three months. RESULTS: The Facial
Grading Scale scores showed significant improvement in both control (mean 32
(range 9.7-54) to 54.5 (42.2-71.7)) and the experimental (33 (18-43.5) to 66
(54-76.7)) group. Facial Grading Scale change scores showed that experimental
group (27.5 (20-43.77)) improved significantly more than the control group (16.5 
(12.2-24.7)). Analysis of Facial Grading Scale subcomponents did not show
statistical significance, except in the movement score (12 (8-16) to 24 (12-18)).
CONCLUSION: Individualized facial neuromuscular re-education is more effective in
improving facial symmetry in patients with Bell's palsy than conventional
therapeutic measures.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
 
PMID: 17613574 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
6: Int J Nurs Stud. 2007 Nov;44(8):1285-95. Epub 2007 Jun 5.
 
Comment in:
    Int J Nurs Stud. 2008 Jan;45(1):154-6; discussion 157-8.
 
The effectiveness of massage with and without dimethyl sulfoxide in preventing
pressure ulcers: a randomized, double-blind cross-over trial in patients prone to
pressure ulcers.
 
Duimel-Peeters IG, J G Halfens R, Ambergen AW, Houwing RH, P F Berger M, Snoeckx 
LH.
 
Department of Health Care Studies/Section Nursing Science, Faculty of Health
Sciences, Universiteit Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, the
Netherlands. idu@bze7.azm.nl
 
BACKGROUND: Although guidelines advise against massage, it is one of the methods 
widely regarded and used by nurses to prevent pressure ulcers (PU). OBJECTIVES:
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of different
variations of massage in preventing pressure ulcers. METHODS: A randomized,
double-blind cross-over design, in which patients of nursing homes who are prone 
to PU underwent two of the three possible interventions; 'position changes only',
'massaging with an indifferent cream' and 'massaging with a dimethyl sulfoxide
(DMSO) cream'. RESULTS: The results of three interventions did not differ
significantly. DMSO did not fulfil the expectations raised by literature and a
previous pilot-study.
 
Publication Types: 
    Comparative Study
    Multicenter Study
    Randomized Controlled Trial
 
PMID: 17553503 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
7: Eur J Pain. 2007 Nov;11(8):878-87. Epub 2007 Apr 24.
 
A randomised controlled study of reflexology for the management of chronic low
back pain.
 
Poole H, Glenn S, Murphy P.
 
Faculty of Health and Applied Social Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, 
Liverpool, UK. H.M.Poole@livjm.ac.uk
 
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the management of
chronic low back pain (CLBP) continues to rise. However, questions regarding the 
efficacy of many CAM therapies for CLBP remain unresolved. The present study
investigated the effectiveness of reflexology for CLBP. A pragmatic randomised
controlled trial was conducted. N=243 patients were randomised to one of three
groups: reflexology, relaxation, or non-intervention (usual care). All completed 
a questionnaire booklet before and after the treatment phase, and at six months
follow up. This measured their general health status, pain, functioning, coping
strategies and mood. After adjusting for pre-treatment scores repeated measures
ANCOVA found no significant differences between the groups pre and post treatment
on the primary outcome measures of pain and functioning. There was a main effect 
of pain reduction, irrespective of group. Trends in the data illustrated the pain
reduction was greatest in the reflexology group. Thus, the current study does not
indicate that adding reflexology to usual GP care for the management of CLBP is
any more effective than usual GP care alone.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
 
PMID: 17459741 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
8: J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Mar;13(2):247-51.
 
Effects of aromatherapy acupressure on hemiplegic shoulder pain and motor power
in stroke patients: a pilot study.
 
Shin BC, Lee MS.
 
Department of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine,
Wonkwang University, Iksan, South Korea.
 
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if aromatherapy acupressure,
compared to acupressure alone, was effective in reducing hemiplegic shoulder pain
and improving motor power in stroke patients. DESIGN: This work was a randomized,
controlled trial. SUBJECTS: Thirty (30) stroke patients with hemiplegic shoulder 
pain participated in this study. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to
either an aromatherapy acupressure group (N = 15) or an acupressure group ( N =
15), with aromatherapy acupressure using lavender, rosemary, and peppermint given
only to the former group. Each acupressure session lasted 20 minutes and was
performed twice-daily for 2 weeks. OUTCOMES MEASURES: Shoulder pain and motor
power were the outcome measures used in this study. RESULTS: The pain scores were
markedly reduced in both groups at post-treatment, compared to pretreatment (both
aroma acupressure and acupressure group, p < 0.001). A nonparametric statistical 
analysis revealed that the pain score differed significantly between the 2 groups
at post-treatment ( p < 0.01). The motor power significantly improved at
post-treatment, compared to pretreatment, in both groups ( p < 0.005). However,
there was no intergroup difference between two groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results
suggest that aromatherapy acupressure exerts positive effects on hemiplegic
shoulder pain, compared to acupressure alone, in stroke patients.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
 
PMID: 17388768 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
9: J Pain Symptom Manage. 2007 Mar;33(3):258-66.
 
Symptom management with massage and acupuncture in postoperative cancer patients:
a randomized controlled trial.
 
Mehling WE, Jacobs B, Acree M, Wilson L, Bostrom A, West J, Acquah J, Burns B,
Chapman J, Hecht FM.
 
Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology and
Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94115, USA.
mehlingw@ocim.ucsf.edu
 
The level of evidence for the use of acupuncture and massage for the management
of perioperative symptoms in cancer patients is encouraging but inconclusive. We 
conducted a randomized, controlled trial assessing the effect of massage and
acupuncture added to usual care vs. usual care alone in postoperative cancer
patients. Cancer patients undergoing surgery were randomly assigned to receive
either massage and acupuncture on postoperative Days 1 and 2 in addition to usual
care, or usual care alone, and were followed over three days. Patients' pain,
nausea, vomiting, and mood were assessed at four time points. Data on health care
utilization were collected. Analyses were done by mixed-effects regression
analyses for repeated measures. One hundred fifty of 180 consecutively approached
cancer patients were eligible and consented before surgery. Twelve patients
rescheduled or declined after surgery, and 138 patients were randomly assigned in
a 2:1 scheme to receive massage and acupuncture (n=93) or to receive usual care
only (n=45). Participants in the intervention group experienced a decrease of 1.4
points on a 0-10 pain scale, compared to 0.6 in the control group (P=0.038), and 
a decrease in depressive mood of 0.4 (on a scale of 1-5) compared to +/-0 in the 
control group (P=0.003). Providing massage and acupuncture in addition to usual
care resulted in decreased pain and depressive mood among postoperative cancer
patients when compared with usual care alone. These findings merit independent
confirmation using larger sample sizes and attention control.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 17349495 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
10: Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007 Sep;276(3):245-9. Epub 2007 Feb 21.
 
Acupressure and vitamin B6 to relieve nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a
randomized study.
 
Jamigorn M, Phupong V.
 
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn
University, Rama IV Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.
 
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of acupressure and vitamin B6 in the
outpatient treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN:
Pregnant volunteers with symptoms of mild to moderate nausea and vomiting between
6 and 12 weeks' gestation participated in a 7-day clinical trial. Participants
were randomly assigned to receive a device for acupressure therapy and placebo
drug or an otherwise identical but non-stimulating placebo device and vitamin B6.
The primary outcome measure was self-recorded symptoms according to Rhodes index.
Secondary outcome measures were weight gain and medication use. RESULTS: The mean
change in Rhodes index was not significantly different between the two groups.
There were no statistically significant differences in weight gain and medication
use between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Acupressure therapy is not more effective
than vitamin B6 in reducing nausea and vomiting in symptomatic women in the first
trimester of pregnancy.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
 
PMID: 17318558 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
11: J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):53-7.
 
Massage relieves nausea in women with breast cancer who are undergoing
chemotherapy.
 
Billhult A, Bergbom I, Stener-Victorin E.
 
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology/Physiotherapy, The Sahlgrenska Academy
at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden. annika.billhult@vgregion.se
 
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of massage on 
nausea, anxiety, and depression in patients with breast cancer undergoing
chemotherapy. DESIGN: This work was a single-center, prospective, randomized,
controlled trial. SETTINGS/LOCATION: This study was conducted in an oncology
clinic, in a hospital in southwestern Sweden. SUBJECTS: Thirty-nine (39) women
(mean age = 51.8) with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy were enrolled.
INTERVENTIONS: The patients were randomly assigned to a massage therapy group (20
minutes of massage on five occasions) or a control group (five 20-minute visits).
OUTCOME MEASURES: All patients recorded nausea and anxiety on the Visual Analogue
Scale before and after each intervention. They also completed the Hospital
Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: Massage treatment significantly reduced
nausea compared with control treatment (p = 0.025) when improvement was measured 
as a percentage of the five treatment periods. Differences in anxiety and
depression between the two treatment regimes could not be statistically
demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: This study complements previous studies on the effect 
of massage and supports the conclusion that massage reduces nausea in these
patients.
 
Publication Types: 
    Controlled Clinical Trial
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 17309378 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
12: J Clin Oncol. 2007 Feb 10;25(5):532-9.
 
Effectiveness of aromatherapy massage in the management of anxiety and depression
in patients with cancer: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.
 
Wilkinson SM, Love SB, Westcombe AM, Gambles MA, Burgess CC, Cargill A, Young T, 
Maher EJ, Ramirez AJ.
 
Marie Curie Palliative Care Research Unit, Royal Free and University College
Medical School, Department of Mental Health Sciences, Cancer Research UK London
Psychosocial Group, Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom.
 
PURPOSE: To test the effectiveness of supplementing usual supportive care with
aromatherapy massage in the management of anxiety and depression in cancer
patients through a pragmatic two-arm randomized controlled trial in four United
Kingdom cancer centers and a hospice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred
eighty-eight cancer patients, referred to complementary therapy services with
clinical anxiety and/or depression, were allocated randomly to a course of
aromatherapy massage or usual supportive care alone. RESULTS: Patients who
received aromatherapy massage had no significant improvement in clinical anxiety 
and/or depression compared with those receiving usual care at 10 weeks
postrandomization (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.7; P = .1), but did at 
6 weeks postrandomization (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.9; P = .01). Patients
receiving aromatherapy massage also described greater improvement in
self-reported anxiety at both 6 and 10 weeks postrandomization (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 
0.2 to 6.7; P = .04 and OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 0.2 to 6.6; P = .04), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Aromatherapy massage does not appear to confer benefit on cancer
patients' anxiety and/or depression in the long-term, but is associated with
clinically important benefit up to 2 weeks after the intervention.
 
Publication Types: 
    Multicenter Study
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 17290062 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
13: J Clin Nurs. 2007 Feb;16(2):308-15.
 
The efficacy of acupressure for decreasing agitated behaviour in dementia: a
pilot study.
 
Yang MH, Wu SC, Lin JG, Lin LC.
 
School of Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of
China.
 
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy of acupressure in decreasing
agitated behaviours associated with dementia. BACKGROUND: Agitated behaviour is
found in nearly half of all patients who have dementia. The presence of these
behaviours increases the likelihood of injury, weakness, dehydration and lack of 
sleep and contributes to caregiver frustration and fatigue. DESIGN: This pilot
study was designed with subjects receiving both acupressure and the control
treatment. Each subject served as his or her own control. Subjects received four 
weeks of acupressure protocols; to avoid a carry-over effect there was a
treatment-free period of one week. Subjects then were visited by one of the
investigators for a six-week period. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a 
nursing home caring specifically for patients with dementia. Twenty of the 31
subjects (64.5 %) completed the study, while 11 were discharged or hospitalized. 
All the subjects were assigned to an experimental protocol and had a six-week
acupressure treatment program. Baseline data were collected in the first week.
Individual treatment sessions began at the second week of the study and lasted 15
minutes, twice a day, five days a week for four weeks. After a treatment-free
period of one week, all the subjects served as controls undergoing a four-week
control protocol consisting of companionship and conversation. RESULTS:
Comparison between the control and experimental phases indicated significant
differences between the two groups on all outcome measures (Cohen-Mansfield
Agitation Inventory, daily agitation records about physical attack, verbal and
non-verbal attack and non-physical attack) with better results found during the
acupressure phase. CONCLUSIONS: Acupressure is recommended as an efficacious and 
non-intrusive method for decreasing the agitation behaviours in patients with
dementia. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Conducting the acupressure treatment
takes 15 minutes. It could provide caregivers with a viable alternative to deal
with patients with dementia.
 
Publication Types: 
    Controlled Clinical Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
 
PMID: 17239066 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
14: Arch Intern Med. 2006 Dec 11-25;166(22):2533-8.
 
Massage therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial.
 
Perlman AI, Sabina A, Williams AL, Njike VY, Katz DL.
 
Institute for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, University of Medicine and 
Dentistry of New Jersey, School of Health Realted Profession, Newark, NJ
07107-1709, USA. a.perlman@umdnj.edu
 
BACKGROUND: Massage therapy is an attractive treatment option for osteoarthritis 
(OA), but its efficacy is uncertain. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial 
of massage therapy for OA of the knee. METHODS: Sixty-eight adults with
radiographically confirmed OA of the knee were assigned either to treatment
(twice-weekly sessions of standard Swedish massage in weeks 1-4 and once-weekly
sessions in weeks 5-8) or to control (delayed intervention). Primary outcomes
were changes in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis
Index (WOMAC) pain and functional scores and the visual analog scale of pain
assessment. The sample provided 80% statistical power to detect a 20-point
difference between groups in the change from baseline on the WOMAC and visual
analog scale, with a 2-tailed alpha of .05. RESULTS: The group receiving massage 
therapy demonstrated significant improvements in the mean (SD) WOMAC global
scores (-17.44 [23.61] mm; P < .001), pain (-18.36 [23.28]; P < .001), stiffness 
(-16.63 [28.82] mm; P < .001), and physical function domains (-17.27 [24.36] mm; 
P < .001) and in the visual analog scale of pain assessment (-19.38 [28.16] mm; P
< .001), range of motion in degrees (3.57 [13.61]; P = .03), and time to walk 50 
ft (15 m) in seconds (-1.77 [2.73]; P < .01). Findings were unchanged in
multivariable models controlling for demographic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Massage
therapy seems to be efficacious in the treatment of OA of the knee. Further study
of cost effectiveness and duration of treatment effect is clearly warranted. .
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
 
PMID: 17159021 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
15: Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 Dec;85(12):951-5.
 
The effect of abdominal massage on bowel function in patients with spinal cord
injury.
 
Ayaş S, Leblebici B, Sözay S, Bayramoğlu M, Niron EA.
 
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Başkent University Medical
School, Ankara, Turkey.
 
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of abdominal massage on clinical aspects of
bowel dysfunction and colonic transit time in patients with spinal cord injury.
Twenty-four patients were placed on a standard bowel program (phase I), after
which abdominal massage was added to the regimen (phase II). Parameters of
gastrointestinal system function and colonic transit times were evaluated.
DESIGN: Uncontrolled clinical study. RESULTS: Eleven (45.8%) of the 24 patients
had abdominal distention, and 10 (41.7%) had fecal incontinence in phase I;
corresponding results for phase II were three (12.5%) and four (16.7%) (P = 0.008
and 0.031, respectively). There were no significant differences between the
proportions of patients with difficult intestinal evacuation or abdominal pain or
in mean time required for bowel evacuation in phase I vs. phase II. The mean
frequencies of defecation in phases I and II were 3.79 +/- 2.15 (2.75-4.55) and
4.61 +/- 2.17 (3.67-5.54) bowel movements per week, respectively (P = 0.006).
Mean total colonic transit time decreased from 90.60 +/- 32.67 (75.87-110.47) hrs
in phase I to 72 +/- 34.10 (58.49-94.40) hrs in phase II (P = 0.035).
CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal massage has positive effects on some clinical aspects of
neurogenic bowel dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury.
 
Publication Types: 
    Clinical Trial
 
PMID: 17117000 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
16: Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2007 Jun;18(6):653-8. Epub 2006 Sep
27.
 
Randomized controlled trial of foot reflexology for patients with symptomatic
idiopathic detrusor overactivity.
 
Mak HL, Cheon WC, Wong T, Liu YS, Tong WM.
 
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong,
China. mhlj01@yahoo.com
 
The aim of this study was to examine whether foot reflexology has beneficial
effects on patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity. One hundred and nine
women with symptomatic idiopathic detrusor overactivity were randomized into
either foot reflexology treatment group or nonspecific foot massage control
group. The primary outcome measure was the change in the diurnal micturition
frequency. There was significant change in the number of daytime frequency in the
reflexology group when compared with the massage group (-1.90 vs -0.55, p =
0.029). There was also a decrease in the 24-h micturition frequency in both
groups, but the change was not statistically significant (-2.80 vs -1.04 p =
0.055). In the reflexology group, more patients believed to have received "true" 
reflexology (88.9 vs 67.4%, p = 0.012). This reflects the difficulty of blinding 
in trials of reflexology. Larger scale studies with a better-designed control
group and an improved blinding are required to examine if reflexology is
effective in improving patients' overall outcome.
 
Publication Types: 
    Randomized Controlled Trial
 
PMID: 17003953 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
 
17: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Sep;3(3):373-7. Epub 2006 Apr 19.
 
Evaluating effects of aromatherapy massage on sleep in children with autism: a
pilot study.
 
Williams TI.
 
Previous studies have found beneficial effects of aromatherapy massage for
agitation in people with dementia, for pain relief and for poor sleep. Children
with autism often have sleep difficulties, and it was thought that aromatherapy
massage might enable more rapid sleep onset, less sleep disruption and longer
sleep duration. Twelve children with autism and learning difficulties (2 girls
and 10 boys aged between 12 years 2 months to 15 years 7 months) in a residential
school participated in a within subjects repeated measures design: 3 nights when 
the children were given aromatherapy massage with lavender oil were compared with
14 nights when it was not given. The children were checked every 30 min
throughout the night to determine the time taken for the children to settle to
sleep, the number of awakenings and the sleep duration. One boy's data were not
analyzed owing to lengthy absence. Repeated measures analysis revealed no
differences in any of the sleep measures between the nights when the children
were given aromatherapy massage and nights when the children were not given
aromatherapy massage. The results suggest that the use of aromatherapy massage
with lavender oil has no beneficial effect on the sleep patterns of children with
autism attending a residential school. It is possible that there are greater
effects in the home environment or with longer-term interventions.
 
PMID: 16951722 [PubMed - in process]

 

 

 
  Today, there have been 8 visitors (12 hits) on this page! www.friskiesfoundation.com; Copyright reserved  
 
=> Do you also want a homepage for free? Then click here! <=
RETURN TO NATURE